Facts About Mercury Element


Facts About Mercury Element 


Mercury is a metal and chemically it is an element. Mercury is a shiny white metal like silver. It is in liquid state at normal temperature. Mercury (hint: Hg) is the last element of the D-block of the periodic table. It's atomic number is 40. Its seven stable isotopes are known, whose mass numbers are 19 9, 19 9, 19, 200, 201, 202 and 204. Apart from these, three unstable isotopes, whose mass numbers are 195, 195 and 205, have been made by artificial means. 

In the chemical world, this metal is the only liquid form at ordinary heat and pressure.


The chemical symbol of mercury is Hg. Atomic weight of mercury (Atomic Weight) is 200.59, the density of mercury is 13.53 grams per cubic centimeter, the mercury atom has 80 electrons, 80 protons, and 121 neutrons. Mercury minus 38.87 ° C changes from liquid to solid state and starts boiling at 356.58 ° C.



Who discovered mercury?


We have read a lot about mercury in books and know that para is a liquid metal and mercury is also called "liquid silver and its chemical formula is Hg and who discovered it is a little smiling." 


But mercury is said to have been found in Egyptian tombs more than 3,500 years ago and was discovered by Chinese and Hindus in ancient times, when Alchemists (chemists) were trying to find gold and silver. 


While doing this, they received a metal in the form of mercury, mercury is not found to be free in nature and is mainly mixed with mineral cinnabar. About 50% of mercury is produced by Spain and Italy. Mercury remains liquid only at room temperature.



Although mercury is very poisonous, but mercury medicines are made to remove diseases of the body. In the Tantric period, the word 'rasa' has been used for mercury. Today, according to books, mercury can not only improve the properties of other metals, but it has the power to make the human body healthy. 



Because it can be easily mixed with various other metals, so it has beneficial uses. Mercury-containing ingredients Various compounds are used for medical purposes Mercury, called alloys of Amalgams, are used in tooth fillings. 



And mercury is a conductor of electricity, depending on its temperature and pressure. As per the expectation, its capacity is measured in a thermometer and barometer in the laboratory. Mercury has the ability to mix with gold, so it is used to extract gold from ores.


Uses of mercury


Many compounds of mercury are useful in pharmaceutical form such as mercuric chloride, benzoate, cyanide, salicylate, iodide etc., drugs are made with disinfectant properties. Mercurochrome is applied in the injury etc. and some of its compounds are also used for dermatitis.



Mercury is in a fluid state and mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, manometers, and other measuring devices due to high density and low vapor pressure. Mercury is also used in many laps and immersion tubes. 



The use of mercury in nuclear powered devices is expected to increase as heat transfer by its vapor can be facilitated by the green line of the mercury spectrum has been considered standard in wavelength measurements.



Mercury is also sensitive to mild changes in temperature, mercury is spread by a slight rise in temperature and shrinks by a slight decrease in temperature, this dispersion and shrinkage in mercury is characterized by a uniform degree of temperature increase.



But as much as the spread is reduced by one degree of temperature, due to this property of mercury, mercury is used to make thermometers.


Mercury is used to make a blood pressure meter (Sphygmomanometer).


Due to the high density of mercury, mercury is used to make barometers.


Mercury is used to make a pressure gauge, it is used to measure the pressure / pressure of gases.


Mercury vapour is used to make fluorescent lamps such as tube lights and CFLs.


Mercury is used to make mercury arc rectifiers / valves. It is used to convert high voltage alternating current (AC current) to direct current (DC current).


Mercury is used in purification of gold and silver.



Mercury is also used in making batteries.


Mercury is used to make liquid lenses for telescopes in an observatory, for which the mercury is filled in a large vessel and slowly rotated round on an axis, allowing centrifugal force and gravity ( Due to gravity). 



The mercury takes the form of a parabolic lens in the vessel, so this lens is very accurate, which is very easily formed if this level of precision If a parabolic lens of the same size is made from a glass, it takes a lot of time and its value also increases many times.


Mercury is used in making liquid contact electrical switches.


Mercury mixed with silver is used to fill the cavity of teeth, but nowadays due to the harmful properties of mercury, the use of this type of teeth is continuously decreasing and it is banned in many countries. Already happened.



Mercury is also used as a liquid electrode in the production of chlorine and caustic soda.



Properties of mercury metal


Mercury is a white shiny metal found at a normal temperature but in a liquid state.


There are weak bonds or bonds between the atoms of mercury due to which mercury atoms are not very strongly interconnected and very little heat is required to break these bonds. That is why mercury is found in liquid state at normal temperature.



The mercury changes from liquid to solid state at 38.87 ° C. In the solid state, mercury density increases from 13.53 grams per cubic centimeter to 14.18 grams per cubic centimeter.



The volume of mercury in the solid state decreases by about 3.59%.



The solid phase consists of mercury mellable, ductile and soft metal which can be easily cut with the help of a knife.



Mercury combines with other metals such as gold and silver aluminium to form an alloy called amalgam but mercury does not form amalgam with all metals.



Iron and some other metals do not form amalgam with mercury, which is why an iron vessel is used to contain mercury.



Mercury reacts with pure aluminium very easily to form amalgam, due to which aluminum starts to collapse very quickly, hence it is prohibited to move mercury in airplanes so that air planes can be protected from mercury damage.



Mercury does not react with air but upon heating the mercury, mercury reacts with the oxygen present in the air to form mercury oxide (HgO), which is a red powder-like substance.



Mercury does not react with most acids, but mercury reacts with and dissolves oxidative acids (acid) such as nitric acid sulfuric acid and aqua regia acid (amalraj).



The surface tension of mercury is very high due to which mercury takes the form of drops instead of spreading like water when it falls on the ground.


When the mercury is kept open, it slowly evaporates at normal temperature.


Mercury is considered a very toxic substance. Mercury can enter the body through open wounds, inhalation and directly through the skin. 



Mercury goes into the body and destroys the nervous system, liver and kidneys.



The heat conductivity of mercury is not very good.



The electrical conductivity of mercury is moderate.



Mercury defects


The mercury freezing point of a mercury thermometer that is zero is below 38.83 ° C or minus 37.89 ° F and mercury vapour occurs very quickly and therefore physical contact with mercury is very dangerous by mercury vapour entering the body through our airways Due to tax losses, caution should be exercised in dealing with mercury, compounds of mercury are mostly toxic, May die


Symbol: Hg
Melting Point: -38.83 ° C
Atomic Mass: 200.59 U ± 0.02 U
Boiling Point: 356.7 ° C
Atomic Number: 80
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f145d106s2



What to do if mercury accidentally enters the body?


If the patient eats any mercury, then the doctor should be called immediately and by feeding milk or raw egg, quick cleaning of the stomach by the gastric duct reduces the effect of toxin and go quickly if there is a hospital nearby.



Mecury Ancient Era Facts


Para has been the subject of curiosity since the ancient era due to its fluid form and silver-like luminosity. The mausoleum is found in Egyptian tombs built around 1,500 BC. This element has been described in India since ancient times. 



At two places in Charaka Samhita, it is addressed as ‘Ras’ and ‘Rasottam’. Vagbhat has described Parad in making medicine. Vrind has described the use of mercury in insecticide medicines in Siddha Yoga. There is a lot of mention of Parad in the Tantric period (from 400 AD to 1300 AD). Parad was given great importance in this period.



The medicines of mercury are recommended to remove diseases of the body. In the Tantric period texts, the word 'Rasa' is used for Parad. According to the books of this period, mercury can not only improve the properties of other metals, but it has the power to make a human's body ajar. 



In the book Rasratnasamuchaya written by Nagarjuna, a detailed description of purifying and other medicines made from mercury is found in other metals. Thereafter, there is a rich description of Paras' Bhasmas and other compounds in other texts.



Mercury is also mentioned in ancient texts in China. The Greek philosopher Theophrestus referred to the 'quicksilver' 300 years before Christ, which was obtained by mixing sybar (HgS) with vinegar. Based on the planet Mercury, this element was named 'Mercury'. Its chemical signal (Hg) is based on the Latin word hydrargyrum.



Occasionally it is found in mercury-free state, but its main ore is Cinébar (HgS), which is found especially in Spain, USA, Mexico, Japan, China and Central Europe. The mercury is liberated when the cinnabar is oxidized in air. Mercury is used in thermometers




Parad combines with many metals to form alloys, which are called amalgam. Sodium and other alkaline metals have been proved useful in many chemical reactions due to being reducing agents.



The mercury remains unaffected in air, but on heating it forms oxide or (HgO), which then decomposes at higher temperatures. It dissolves in dilute nitric acid and hot concentrated sulfuric acid. Two compounds of mercury (1 and 2) have compounds. Its salts have a low degree of ionization. Its two chloride compounds are obtained. 



One of these is mercurous chloride or calomel, (Hg2Cl2), which is described in Indian texts as 'Karpoorus' and 'Whitebhasma'. Another is mercuric chloride, or kerosive sublimate, (HgCl2), which is a toxic substance. The mercury compounds are mostly toxic, but are given in small amounts in a medicinal form.




Both mercury's mercury (having 1 valency) and mercuric (having 2 valencyes), both salts, form complex compunds. Nessler's reagent is also a complex compound, formed by the process of mercuric chloride, potassium iodide, (KI) on (HgCl2). It is used in the analysis of microscopic amounts of ammonia.



And due to condition, high density and low pressure, mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, manometers and other measuring instruments. Parad is also used in many laps and immersion tubes. 




It is expected that the use of mercury in nuclear powered devices will increase, as heat transfer can be facilitated by its vapor. The green line of the spectrum of mercury has been considered standard in wavelength measurement.



Many compounds of mercury are useful in pharmaceutical form. Mercuric chloride, benzoate, cyanide, salicylate, iodide, etc. are compounds with disinfectant properties. Mercurochrome injury is often applied. 



Some of its compounds have proven beneficial in dermatoses. Paradox vapor enters the body through breathing and causes harm. For this reason, caution should be exercised in working with mercury. 


The compounds of mercury are often toxic, through which death can occur. If someone accidentally eats them, a doctor should be called immediately. By feeding milk or raw egg, quick cleaning of the stomach by the gastric tube reduces the effect of toxin.



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