Jallianwala Bagh Massacre ! Things You Should Know About Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre History And Facts 


Jallianwala Bagh Massacre


The Jallianwala Bagh massacre is an unfortunate incident connected with the history of India, which took place in the year 1919. This massacre was condemned worldwide. 




This massacre was carried out to stop the movements going on for the independence of our country. But after this massacre, the revolutionaries of our country were strengthened instead of being reduced.




After all, what happened in the year 1919, due to which innocent people present in Jallianwala Bagh were killed, who was the main accused in the murder and what punishment did he get? The answers to all these questions have been given to you in this article.




Information related to Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
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Information related to Jallianwala Bagh-



Information of events in the year 1919 -



Protest was held against the Rowlatt Act -


In the year 1919, many kinds of laws were implemented in our country by the British Government and these laws were being opposed in every part of our country.



On 6 February 1919, the British government introduced a bill called 'Rowlatt ' in the Imperial Legislative Council and the bill was passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in the month of March. After which this bill became an act.



According to this act, the British Government of India could arrest any person on the basis of suspicion of treason and put that person in jail without presenting them before a jury. 




Apart from this, the police could also keep any person in custody for two years without any investigation. This act gave the British government a strength to suppress the political activities taking place in India.



With the help of this act, the British Government of India wanted to control the Indian revolutionaries and wanted to completely end the movements going on for the independence of our country. 




Who opposed Rowlatt Act ?


This act was opposed by many leaders including Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhiji started the Satyagraha movement against this act in the whole country.



Start of 'Satyagraha' movement




Satyagraha  movement became the foundation of the non-cooperation movement of 1920, following the infamous Rowlatt Act. 



The Satyagraha movement, started in the year 1919, was going on with great success against the British rule in the whole country and every Indian participated in this movement in a big way.




On 6 April 1919, a strike was organized under this movement in the city of Amritsar, India, and the Rowlatt Act was opposed. But gradually this non-violent movement took the form of a violent movement.



On 9 April, the government arrested two leaders belonging to Punjab. The names of these leaders were Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal. After arresting these two leaders, they were transferred from Amritsar to Dharamshala by the British police. Where he was placed under house arrest.




Both these leaders of Amritsar were very popular among the people here and, being troubled by the arrest of their leader, the people here wanted to meet the Deputy Committee, Mills Irving, to get him released on 10 April. 




But the deputy committee refused to meet these people. After which these angry people set the railway station, wire department and several government offices on fire.



 Due to fire in the wire department, the government work was severely damaged, because through this, communication between the officers was possible at that time. Due to this violence, three British were also killed. The government was very upset with these killings.



Amritsar 's responsibility handed over to Dyer




To overcome the deteriorating conditions of Amritsar, the British Government of India handed over the responsibility of this state from Deputy Commissioner Mills Irving to Brigadier General  Dyer and Dyer started the task of correcting the conditions of Amritsar on 11 April. 



In view of the circumstances of the state of Punjab, the British government imposed martial law in many cities of this state. Under this law, the freedom of citizens and the holding of public ceremonies were banned.


Under martial law, where more than three people were being gathered, they were caught and put in jail. Actually, through this law, the British government wanted to stop the meetings organized by the revolutionaries. So that the revolutionaries can do nothing against them.




On April 12, the government also arrested the other two leaders of Amritsar and the names of these leaders were Chaudhary Buga Mal and Mahasha Ratan Chand. After the arrest of these leaders, there was more anger among the people of Amritsar. 




Due to which the situation of this city was likely to worsen. To handle the situation, the British police in this city had further tightened.



Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
Source: Internet


On April 13, a large number of people gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar. On this day curfew was imposed in this city but on this day there was also the festival of Baisakhi. Due to which a large number of people came to Harimandir Sahib i.e. Golden Temple of Amritsar.



Jallianwala Bagh was close to the Golden Temple. Therefore, many people had also gone to roam in this garden and in this way on April 13, about 20,000 people were present in this garden.


Some of whom had gathered to meet peacefully on the issue of the arrest of their leaders. At the same time, some people also came to roam here with their family.


On this day at around 12:40 pm, Dyer was informed of the meeting to be held at Jallianwala Bagh. After receiving this information, Dyer left his office at around 4 am with about 150 soldiers for this garden.




Dyer felt that this meeting was being done for the purpose of spreading riots. Therefore, after reaching this garden, he ordered his soldiers to open fire without giving any warning to the people. It is said that these soldiers opened fire for about 10 minutes. At the same time people started running to avoid bullets.



But the main door of this garden was also closed by the soldiers and this garden was closed with walls up to 10 feet from all sides. In such a situation, many people jumped into a well in this garden to save their lives. But the bullets were not taking the name of stopping and within a short time the color of the land of this garden had turned red.



How many people died in Jallianwala Bagh Massacre?



More than 370 people died in this massacre, including young children and women. A seven-week-old baby was also murdered in this massacre. 



Apart from this, more than 100 dead bodies were extracted from the well in this garden. These bodies were mostly of children and women only. It is said that people jumped into the well to avoid bullets, but still they could not save their lives.



According to the Congress party, around 1000 people were killed and more than 1500 people were injured in this accident. But the British government only confirmed the death of around 370 people. So that the image of his country is not spoiled worldwide.



Questions raised on Dyer's decision



This massacre was condemned by every leader of India and after this incident, the freedom to liberate our country became more intense. But some officials of the British government had justified the massacre carried out by Dyer.




When Dyer reported this to his officer after killing innocent people, Lieutenant Governor Michael O'Dwyer said in a letter that the action Dyer had taken was correct and we accept it.



Rabindranath Tagore returned his title-




When Rabindranath Tagore came to know about the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, he had decided to return his 'knighthood' title, expressing sorrow over the incident. Tagore had written to Lord Chelmsford, who was then Viceroy of India, asking him to return the title. Tagore was given this title to him in the year 1915 by UAC.





Hunter Committee for Jallianwala Bagh massacre




A committee was formed in the year 1919 regarding Jallianwala Bagh and Lord William Hunter was made the chairman of this committee. This committee called Hunter Committee was set up to investigate many other incidents in the country, including Jallianwala Bagh. 




Apart from William Hunter, there were seven other people in this committee in which some Indians were also present. This committee investigated every aspect of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and tried to find out that what Dyer had done at that time in Jallianwala section was right or wrong.



On 19 November 1919, this committee asked Dyer to appear before him and asked him questions about this massacre. 




According to the statement made by Dyer in front of this committee, Dyer came to know about a meeting in Jallianwala Bagh at 12:40 in the morning, but at that time he took any steps to stop this meeting. 



Did not get up According to Dyer, around 4 o'clock he left to go to the garden with his soldiers and it was clear in his mind that if there was any kind of meeting there, he would start firing there.



Dyer had also agreed in front of the committee that if he wanted, he could scatter people without firing on them. But they did not do so. Because he felt that if he had done this, after some time people would gather back there and laugh at Dyer. 




Dyer said that he knew that those people were rebels, so he fired bullets while performing his duty. Dyer further said in his explanation that it was not his duty to help the injured. The hospitals were open there and the injured could go there and get their treatment.



On 8 March 1920, this committee made its report public, and Dyer's move in the Hunter Committee's report was completely wrong. It was said in the report that firing on people for a long time was absolutely wrong. 




Dyer had taken this decision while crossing his boundaries. It was also said in this report that no conspiracy was being done to end British rule in Punjab. After the arrival of this report, Dyer was found guilty on 23 March 1920 and retired.




Winston Churchill, who was then Secretary of State for War, criticized the massacre and said in the House of Commons in 1920 that those who were shot dead had no weapons, just There were sticks When the bullets were fired, these people started running around to save their lives. 




When these people started hiding on the corner to save their lives, bullets were fired there too. Apart from this, those who lay on the ground were not spared and they were also killed. Apart from Churchill, former British Prime Minister HHH Asquith had also termed the massacre as wrong.



Killing Dyer



After his retirement, Dyer began living in London. But the day of 13 March 1940 proved to be the last day of his life. In revenge for the murder they committed, Udham Singh shot him in Caxton Hall. 




Singh was an Indian independence activist and it is said that on 13 April, he was also present in the garden where Dyer fired bullets and Singh was also injured by a bullet. Singh saw the Jallianwala Bagh incident with his own eyes. 



After this incident, Singh was engaged in devising a strategy to take revenge from Dyer and in the year 1940, Singh succeeded in his strategy and avenged the death of those killed in Jallianwala Bagh.



Udham Singh's move was praised by many foreign newspapers and our country's newspaper 'Amrita Bazar Patrika' said that the common people and revolutionaries of our country are proud of the action of Udham Singh. However, Udham Singh was hanged in London in 1940 for this murder. 




While putting his side before the court, Singh said that he killed Dyer because he deserved it. They wanted to crush the spirit of the people of our country, so I have crushed them. I was trying to kill him for 21 years and today I have done my work. I am not afraid of death, I am dying for my country.



This sacrifice of Udham Singh was respected by every citizen of our country and Jawaharlal Nehru ji gave Singh the status of a martyr in the year 1952.





Jallianwala Bagh Massacre Based Movie



A Hindi film was also made on this incident in the year 1977 and the film was named Jallianwala Bagh. Vinod Khanna and Shabana Azmi played the lead roles in this film. 




Apart from this, in almost every film based on India's independence (eg, Legend of Bhagat Singh, Rang De Basanti), the Jallianwala Bagh massacre is definitely seen.



Apart from this, many books have also been written on this murder. This incident of April 13 was mentioned in the novel Midnight's Children which came in 1981. This novel was written by Salman Rushdie.




In the year 2012, a film was also made on this novel, which also depicted the murder. Apart from this, this incident was also shown in the film Phillauri in 2017 and it was told that somehow this massacre had an impact on the lives of many people and the families associated with those killed.



British government did not apologize



The British government has expressed its sorrow many times about this massacre, but never apologized for this massacre. In 1997, Queen Elizabeth II of Britain also visited Jallianwala Bagh during her visit to India. 




On reaching Jallianwala Bagh, he took off his shoes and spent some time near the memorial built in this garden and kept silent for 30 minutes. Many leaders of India had also asked Queen Elizabeth-II to apologize.



At the same time, the then Prime Minister of India, Indra Kumar Gujral, defended the queen, saying that the queen was not born at the time of this incident and she should not apologize.



At the same time, Prince William and Kate Middleton of England, who visited India in 2016, decided not to go to Jallianwala Bagh to keep distance from this issue. 





At the same time, in the year 2017, the Mayor of Britain, Mayor Sadiq Khan, while giving a statement, said that the British Government should have apologized for this massacre.



In 2019, this event is going to be 100 years and in such a situation, Congress leader Shashi Tharoor gave a suggestion to the British government, saying that 2019 is a good opportunity to apologize.





Other facts related to Jallianwala Bagh (Facts about Jallianwala Bagh) -



The memorial built at this place-



It was decided to build a memorial here in memory of those killed in Jallianwala Bagh. In the year 1920 a trust was established and this place was purchased.



Jallianwala Bagh was once owned by a lawyer of Raja Jaswant Singh. At the same time in the year 1919, this place had the right of about thirty people. This place was bought from these people in the year 1923 for about Rs 5,65,000.


The responsibility of building the memorial at this place was given to the architect of America, Benjamin Polk, and Polk designed the monument. The memorial was inaugurated on 13 April 1961, by the President of India, Rajendra Prasad in the presence of several leaders.



It cost about 9 lakh rupees to build this memorial and this memorial is known as "Flame of Fire".



There are still bullet marks



Jallianwala Bagh bullet marks





Jallianwala Bagh has become a tourist place in today's time and thousands of people visit this place every day. Many memories related to the 1919 incident still exist at this site.



On a wall built at this site, there are still marks of bullets which were fired by his soldiers on the orders of Dyer. Apart from this, that well is also present at this place in which women and children jumped and gave their lives.


Why is the massacre of Amritsar historically important?


Even today, this massacre is counted among the worst massacres in the world. This year, in 2018, this murder is going to be 99 years but still the grief of this murder is the same as it was 99 years ago. At the same place, every year on April 13, a tribute is paid to those who lost their lives in this massacre.


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